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Brown vs. Topeka Board of Educationright

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Post-Brown Era

     There were many cases following Brown that changed it's ruling in different ways.  Brown II in 1955, Little Rock nine in 1957, Keyes v. Denver School District No. 1 in 1972, and the Brown conclusion reopened in 94' are just a few of the many involved in the aftermath of Brown.


Brown II in 1955

     The original Brown cases conclusion declared, racial discrimination in public education unconstitutional.  The next year, the Supreme Court reopened the case requesting further enforcement of the issue.  some people call this case "Brown II" after the first Brown case.  The Court's final conclusion on Brown II is the following ruling by Mr. Chief Justice Warren: "The cases are remanded to the District Courts to take such proceedings and enter such orders and decrees consistent with this opinion as are necessary and proper to admit public schools on a racially nondiscriminatory basis with all deliberate speed the parties to these cases." 


Little Rock Nine in 1957

            In September 1957, three years after the supreme court overruled separate but equal the Brown v Board of Education case, rioters broke out at Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas. It became a battle ground with riots and National Guardsmen for the reason of integration of that school. 

            There were nine black teenagers planning to attend. Around that that season the New York Time said racial conditions in Arkansas favored school integration. Some officials wanted to integrate the city's schools, leading off with the high schools during that summer. They figured the whole system would be done by 1963.

            Integration was supposed to begin September 3 with twelve black students, going to attend Central High School, but groups of citizens started to get upset. The Governor of Arkansas, Faubus, said that the people are so strongly against it that it wouldn't be good for the safety of all the students. Faubus called for the state militia. On September 3 there were about 100 militia men supposedly there to maintain order, but by the end of the day there were about 300 militia men. Despite the governors demand that integration be delayed the Federal Judge said for it to began as fast as possible. 

            Nine black students arrived at the school on September 4 and met a crowd of 400 mad whites. The governor kept the blockade for the public safety. President Eisenhower said he would uphold the constitution by every legal means at his command. The school board asked the District Court to not keep integration until calmness is restored. The governor kept the guards at the school. Eisenhower wanted to ignore the situation no more. The District Court agreed for Washington to take on the state of Arkansas. The governor said he would allow integration in time, to prevent violence. On September 20, the governor hadn't come through with his promise. The Federal District Court Judge issued a temporary injunction for the troops around the school. The governor pulled out the troops asking for an appeal. Asking the black students not to attend for a "Cooling Off" period. So 50 state troopers went to the school to protect the black students. On September 22 the nine black students were able to get three hours of school before crowds forced their departure at noon. Eisenhower was furious and ordered rioters to get out of there.

            On September 25 the nine black students attended their first full day of class due to the protection from 1,000 troops. Governor Faubus blamed all of the cities problems on integration. Eight of the nine students continued classes, the ninth was expelled for racial events. Three months later the very first black student to get a diploma from that school, Ernest Green, graduated. But six months later the school board asked for and got a suspension for integration. The U.S. Court Judge gave them a two and a half year delay which meant the seven black students left would be forbidden to go to that school. But a month later it was overturned. Then Governor Faubus shut down the cities four high schools for almost a year. But on August 12, 1959 the schools reopened and were integrated.                         


Keyes v. Denver in 1972

     This case actually started in of 1869.  It was the first ruling on school segregation in the Northern and Western states.  The schools were accused of intentional segregation in the school system.

     It all started when children in Denver schools challenged the school's policy of racial segregation.  The  courts  found that the schools were in fact segregated and the whole school district was presumed illegally segregated


Brown II in 1979

     In November of 1979 the Brown case was once again reopened because the courts found out that the Topeka schools were still segregated in some way.  The school district formed a policy called "open enrollment."  It would permit students to transfer from school to school as they pleased.


94' Reopened

     On July 25, 1994 the Brown case reopened for the third time that century.  The reason being that Topeka School District No. 501 had a proposal that required the closing of some schools, construction of new buildings, reassignment of students, and curriculum restructuring although it might take at least three years to complete.

     Finally the battle of Brown is over unless in the future the courts decide to bring it up again.  But even today segregation remains an issue in our schools. 


Post-Brown Era Timeline


Authors

Ashley Shepard 

Brady Hoffman     


Bibliography

 

The Golden Rule

 

Brown Family

 

Thurgood Marshall

 

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Last Updated: April 21, 2014 |  Return to Top    

Real History in the Real World Project by Rossville Jr. High